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Non Woven Fabric
Non woven fabric is a fabric-like material made from staple fibre (short) and long fibres (continuous long), bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. The term is used in the textile manufacturing industry to denote fabrics, such as felt, which are neither woven nor knitted. Some non-woven materials lack sufficient strength unless densified or reinforced by a backing. In recent years, non-wovens have become an alternative to polyurethane foam.
Introduction to Non-Woven Fabrics
Non-woven fabrics are felted or bonded together
Non-woven fabrics have many uses in textile products particularly as internal strengtheners and to assist sewing, such as interfacing
Many non-woven fabrics are disposable products
Laminated fabrics may not be non-woven but bonded together with heat or glue
Nonwovens are in fact products in their own right with their own characteristics and performances, but also weaknesses.
They are around us and one uses them every day, often without knowing it. Indeed they are frequently hidden from view.
Nonwovens can be made absorbent, breathable, drapable, flame resistant, heat sealable, light, lint-free, mouldable, soft, stable, stiff, tear resistant, water repellent if needed.
Obviously, though, not all the properties mentioned can be combined in a single nonwoven, particularly those that are contradictory.
Non-woven fabrics are made in two main ways:
They are either felted or they are bonded. The fabrics use fibres rather than yarns; these are laid randomly or in a uniform way to make web-like layers. They are held together by either the felting or bonding process.Non-woven materials are used in numerous applications, including:
surgical drapes and covers
surgical scrub suits
medical packaging: porosity allows gas sterilization
Nonwovens do not depend on the interlacing of yarn for internal cohesion. Intrinsically they have neither an organized geometrical structure. They are essentially the result of the relationship between one single fiber and another. This provides nonwoven fabrics with characteristics of their own, with new or better properties (absorption, filtration) and therefore opens them up to other applications
Wool felt is the most common non-woven fabric and is produced by using short staple fibres from wool or other animal hairs (such as camel). Wool is an ideal fibre because its surface has natural hooks like scales, which when moisture, heat and vigorous movement are applied, interlock with each other. The heat and damp conditions cause the fibres to curl up, and the scales locking together prevents the fibres from straightening out again. When you wash a natural wool jumper and it shrinks in size the jumper is actually felting and you can’t make it bigger again no matter how hard you try to stretch it back.
There are three main methods of making bonded fabrics:
A web of fibres is laid in a drum and hot air is injected to bond the fibres together.
A web of fibres is mixed with a solvent that softens the fibres and releases a glue-like substance that bonds the fibres together and then the web is laid out to dry.
The fibres are spun on to a conveyer belt and glues are sprayed on to the fibres, which are then pressed to bond; if the fibres are thermoplastic (will change shape with heat) then the glue is not needed in this process.
Felted and bonded fabrics applications
Hats, jackets, toys and snooker table covers are some commonly used for wool felts.
Bonded fabrics are used for disposable products such as cloths, medical masks, and table linen. They are also used for interfacings for stiffening and strengthening clothing and dressmaking (e.g. Vilene).
Laminated fabrics are made by bonding two or more fabrics together. Many fabrics require extra insulation or protection, and the foam is bonded to provide this. Sometimes comfort can be an issue with PVC fabrics, so a softer fabric may be bonded instead of using a lining. Making a fabric breathable and waterproof may require lamination of a membrane, as in Gortex and Sympatex.
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